According to DigoPaul, Abnormal is an adjective that is used to name what is outside its natural state or the conditions that are inherent in it. For example: “It goes without saying that the birth of an animal with two heads is something abnormal”, “It is abnormal that it is so hot in this part of the world”, “I have detected some abnormal results in the study”.
To understand the concept of abnormal, we must first know what is normal. Normality is linked to something that is in its natural state or that serves as a rule or norm. It is possible to associate the normal with the common or the usual.
The abnormal, therefore, is just the opposite: the infrequent, that which escapes from the common or from logic. Suppose that in a given country, nine out of ten people have black or brown hair. It could be said that the normal thing, then, is that the inhabitants of this nation are morochos. The birth of a blond or red-haired baby there is therefore an abnormal event, in the sense that it is rare.
It is important to keep in mind, however, that the notion of abnormal usually has a negative or discriminatory connotation. Normality, after all, can be subjective or, as in the previous example, be a simple consequence of statistics. This does not mean that the abnormal is bad or damnable: it is simply different or unusual.
The moral is also often influence the definition of the abnormal. If monogamy is the norm in a society, a person who has simultaneous romantic relationships with several partners will be considered abnormal.
It is called Pap smear to a study aims to detect cancer of the cervix, which is effected by scraping its opening to remove cells and examined microscopically. For this, the patient is asked to lie on a table and extend her legs on two stirrups, after which the sample is taken. One of the possible results is called abnormal, mainly because of the presence of cells that are not recognized as part of the cervix.
It is worth mentioning that this test does not offer absolute precision and that cervical cancer can go unnoticed in some cases. When the result is abnormal, there are several possibilities:
* ALMOST: Atypical cells are detected in the cervix although the causes of their presence are not known with certainty, which may well be the human papilloma virus or an impending cancer;
* LIEBG: it is a low-grade intraepithelial lesion, which can alert about the appearance of cancer;
* LIEAG: similar to the previous one, but of high degree, and with more possibilities of cervical cancer;
* Carcinoma in situ: This result usually means that abnormalities point to the development of cervical cancer if proper treatment is not performed;
* Atypical squamous cells: the changes detected in this case may indicate a high-grade intraepithelial lesion (LIEAG);
* Atypical glandular cells: There is a possibility of cancer appearing in the cervical canal or inside the uterus itself.
In any case of abnormal vaginal cytology, complementary studies are usually indicated, which may include a colposcopy-directed biopsy and an examination of the human papilloma virus to rule out its presence. When the changes seen in a cytology are not worrisome, the most common thing is that the test be repeated within a period of 6 to 12 months.